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  • Managemental control
  • Four live coccidiosis vaccines (that comprise oocysts) are available in the market. They are viz. "Coccivac" vaccine (American Scientific Laboratories Inc.), "Immucox" vaccine (Vetech Laboratories), "Paracox" vaccine (Schering-Plough Veterinary Ltd) and "Livacox" vaccine (Biopharm, Czech Republic). A subunit recombinant vaccine "Coxabic" (Abic, Israel) based upon the principle of maternal immunisation is also launched recently in foreign countries.
    1. Vaccinate the birds at the age of 3-10 days in water or mixed with alginate beads in feed. Then put the birds at low anticoccidials for 13 days – 6 weeks.
  • Commercial vaccine available for chicken coccidiosis :
  • Non-attenuated vaccines
    (Coccivac, Immucox, Nobilis COX ATM and VAC M)
  • Attenuated vaccines (Livacox and Paracox )
    • a. COCCIVAC – Sterwin lab, USA.– virulent oocyst of all species (except E. praecox.)
      Coccivac D (E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. necatrix, E. praecox and E.tenella)
      Coccivac B (E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. tenella)

      b. IMMUCOX - Vetech lab, Canada. – virulent
      • Immucox ® For chickens II - oral coccidiosis vaccine marketed by Solvay- Be Pharma, used in the hatchery breeding stock.
      • Store at 3 –7 °C only and do not freeze it.
      • It contains sporulated oocysts of E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. necatrix, E. tenella, & E. brunetti.
      • Vaccinate the bird from day 1 to 5 days in cold water.
      • Be sure no anticoccidial is used in the feed during the period
      • Immucox – II Vet lab, Canada – Virulent – All spp. Turkey Coccidia

      c. PARACOX Pitman – Moore, UK. Attenuated & Precocius line - All spp.
      d. LIVACOX IFS & VD, Czech. Attenuated & Precocius line - Major spp. egg adopted E.tenella and precoccius line of E. acervulina & E. maxima.
      Livacox – T (E. acervulina, E. maxima and E. tenella)
      Livacox – D (E. acervulina and E. tenella)

  • Conditons to use vaccine:
  • 1. It is mainly used in' Deep litter'
    2. Litter condition should be enough for sporulation to repeat the infection (TRICKLE INFECTION)
    3. Low dose of anti coccidial in feed.
    4. Further external contamination of oocyst should be avoided.
  • Vaccination methods
    • Initially two doses through feed/water at one week of age
    • Single dose for day old chicks in hatchery Ways of administering vaccines
    • Intraocular – Uniform dosage is achieved
    • Spraying of vaccine over trays of chicks in hatchery. Chicks probably ingest the oocyst by way of direct. oral routes but mainly by self preening and pecking. A colouring agent is added to the vaccine. Darker coloured dyes increase preening activity
    • By way of placing edible gels in chick trays
    • Spraying vaccine on the first feed that chicks receive in hatchery
    • In-ovo administration
    • Injected into 17 or 18 day old embryos,
    • Uniformity of dosing, low shedding of oocysts
    • Oocyst output begins two days after chick hatch
  • Key point for successful live coccidiosis vaccination
    • Coccidial vaccines contain organisms that are alive and pathogenic. Vaccine reaction in flocks must be carefully monitored from day 6 through 28 post-vaccination.
    • Excessive vaccine reactions frequently produce a reduction in weight gain and occasionally an increase in mortality.
    • Adverse effects can be minimized with the administration of a low dosage of amprolium for two consecutive days to flocks between 10 and 14 days of age.
    • Vitamin supplementation (particularly the fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D, and K) during the second through fifth week has been shown to be helpful in overcoming the potential negative effects of the vaccine reaction.
    • Many management factors can influence the success of the coccidiosis vaccination program, including partial house brooding, the use of built-up litter, litter moisture, adequate nutrition (particularly protein, Vitamin E and zinc) and the control of immunosuppressive factors.
  • A New Subunit vaccine for chicken coccidiosis (CoxAbic)
    • CoxAbic is developed by Abic Company, Israel and it is marketed in India by Sarabhai
    • First developed subunit vaccine against coccidia
    • Comprises of a purified protein isolated from gametocytes of E. maxima
    • Vaccine is injected twice into broiler breeder pullets (Parent stocks) before point of lay, stimulating the production of antibodies.
    • Antibodies are transferred to their offspring via the egg yolk (maternal immunization)
    • In the chiks 5-6 weks immunity last.
    • Well suited for broilers.
  • Storage:
  • Vaccine should be kept under regular refrigeration at +2 C to +8°C.
  • Method of Administration:
    • Breeder pullets are vaccinated twice intramuscularly before point-of-lay:
    • 1st dose - 12-16 weeks 2nd dose - 18-20 weeks
    • Dose per each bird: 0.5ml / inj
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