Many drugs are available for the prevention and treatment of coccidiosis in chickens. Detailed instructions for use are provided by all manufacturers, and all warnings should be carefully observed. Relatively low dosages may be used continuously for prevention or if development of immunity is desired.
Anticoccidials are generally given to poultry in feed to prevent acute disease and the economic loss often associated with subacute infection. Prophylactic use is preferred because most damage occurs before signs become apparent, and delayed treatment may not benefit the entire flock.
Producers may use one anticoccidial continuosly through successive flocks, rotate anticoccidials every 4 to 6 months, or change anticoccidials during a single grow-out (known as shuttle programmes). Continous use of anticoccidial drugs may result in selection for and survival of drug-resistant strains of coccidia.
There are two classes of anticoccidials:
- Coccidiostats which arrest or inhibit the growth of intracellular coccidia, giving rise to latent infection after drug withdrawal. In this class we can find the ionophores that mainly affect both the extra and intracellular stages of the parasite (by forming complexes with various ions and transporting them into and through biological membranes, which accounts for their activity). Some ionophores depress weight gain and recent surveys suggest that drug tolerance is widespread).
- Coccidiocidals which destroy coccidia during their development.
I. Sulphonamides is a Coccidiostat that acts by Foliate antagonists and inhibitors. They are efficacious because coccidia need nucleic acids, mainly during the second schizont stage. Resistance to these compounds is widespread.
(A) Sulphadimidines : 0.4 % feed, 0.2 % water
Treatment Course: 3 days treatment, 2 days rest, and
then 3 days treatment.
(B) Sulphaquinoxaline : 0.043 % water
Two treatments for 2 days with 3-5 day interval between them
2. Thiamine Analog
AMPROLIUM – 0.0125 % as coccidiostat
It can be used as singly or combined with ethopabate (Vitamin-B1 should not be given along with Amprolium) it is structurally similar to thiamine and a competitive antagonist that affects coccidia during its dividing phases, where it needs great amounts of thiamine. Due to the fact that it has poor activity against some Eimeria spp, its spectrum has been extended by using it in mixtures (sulfaquinoxaline, ethopabate or folic acid). Development of resistant strains is a problem.
a)Zoalene – coccidiostatic if used for 5-6 days & prolonged use it is coccidiocidal
b)Nitromide (DOT – Dinitro –O – Tolumide)
(DOT is commonly added as prophylatic in feed especially in starter ration in broilers @ 0.5 kg / ton feed)
Nitrofurazone - 0.022 % curative
Furazolidone - 0.0055 % in feed
Nitrofurazone + furazolidone (0.0053 % + 0.0008 %) marked coccidiostatic
5. Substituted Carbanilides
ARPINOCID – It affects intracellular stages and sporulation of oocysts
It is a fermentation products of Streptomyces albus and acts by fail to transport Na+ and K+ ions across the membrane
Monensin - 0.01 %
Lasolocid - 0.005 - 0.0075 %
Salinomycin - 0.01 %
Maduramicin. - 5-6 ppm (derived from Actinomadura yumaensis )
Alborixcin - 50 ppm
Semduramicin – (Aviax, Pfizer) - Mix ½ kg of Aviax 5 % premix per tonne of feed ingredients to
provide 25 ppm Semduramicin activity in finished broiler feeds.
9. Polystat - Combined products : 0.002 %feed,
10. Halofuginone, Clopidol
11. Antibiotics such as Aureomycin (CTC), OTC and Chloromphenicol may also be used along with other
Other New drugs
Sulpha chlorpyrazine (ESb3) - Therapeutic drug at levels of 1-5 to 2 grams of the drug in 1 litre of drinking water.
Diclazuril (Clinacox) - 1 ppm in feed.
Toltrazuril (Baycox) – 7mg/kg body weight for 2 consecutive days; 24 hours continuously or for 8 hours each day in the drinking water.